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Several copies of the earlier sections of 1 Enoch were preserved among the Dead Sea Scrolls.The first part of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim.Although evidently widely known during the development of the Hebrew Bible canon, 1 Enoch was excluded from both the formal canon of the Tanakh and the typical canon of the Septuagint and therefore, also from the writings known today as the Deuterocanon.One possible reason for Jewish rejection of the book might be the textual nature of several early sections of the book that make use of material from the Torah; for example, 1 En 1 is a midrash of Deuteronomy 33.As with 1 Enoch there appear to be five divisions: Enoch informs his sons about his imminent ascension (1-2); he ascends through seven (expanded to ten by a later editor) heavens (3-21); Enoch meets the Lord and records His revelations (22-38); he returns to the earth in order to instruct and admonish his sons (39-66); Enoch is taken by angels to the highest heaven (67; the long recension adds how the people praised God for the sign delivered through Enoch, 68)." (The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, p.
For this and other reasons, the traditional Ethiopian belief is that the original language of the work was Ge'ez, whereas non-Ethiopian scholars tend to assert that it was first written in either Aramaic or Hebrew; Ephraim Isaac suggests that the Book of Enoch, like the Book of Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew. It is asserted in the book itself that its author was Enoch, before the Biblical Flood.
Robert Henry Charles's critical edition of 1906 subdivides the Ethiopic manuscripts into two families: Family α: thought to be more ancient and more similar to the Greek versions: used by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church for preparation of the deuterocanonicals from Ge'ez into the targumic Amharic in the bilingual Haile Selassie Amharic Bible (Mashaf qeddus bage'ezenna ba'amaregna yatasafe 4 vols.
c.1935 The 8th-century work Chronographia Universalis by the Byzantine historian George Syncellus preserved some passages of the Book of Enoch in Greek (6:1–9:4, 15:8–16:1).
The content, particularly detailed descriptions of fallen angels, would also be a reason for rejection from the Hebrew canon at this period – as illustrated by the comments of Trypho the Jew when debating with Justin Martyr on this subject: "The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God." (Dialogue 79) By the 4th century, the Book of Enoch was mostly excluded from Christian canons, and it is now regarded as scripture by only the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
"Enoch, the seventh from Adam" is quoted, in Jude –15: And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convict all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. He cometh with ten thousands of His Saints To execute judgment upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
The book concludes with a farewell discourse and an account of Enoch's ascension." (Judaism Outside the Hebrew Canon, pp. He also maintained that it was composed in Egypt, probably in Alexandria, by a Hellenistic Jew. 72) Leonhard Rost writes: "The association with the West is all the more remarkable in that the Greek recension of the book (which represents at least an important stage in the formation of the tradition, if not the crucial initial stage) undoubtedly came into being in Egypt within the circle of Hellenistic Jews who were influenced but not overwhelmed by the intellectual milieu represented by Philo.